As a result of their efforts, we may wish to view the modernist poetry of Iran as the only, the “natural,” alternative to classical Persian poetry. No, your excellency Sun of Poets! When they listened to someone, it was not to see what he was saying. Even in the days of the cholera they would write: From the sixteenth century on, the absence of court patronage for nonreligious poetry at the courts of Isfahan had pushed the center of the Persian poetic culture to the Ottoman Empire, to Central Asia, and most importantly to India. Second, it has led to a slavish imitation of old poets regardless of their worth, merit, or relevance to the present age. To achieve that, they constructed the idea of a “European poetry” which, they argued, had contributed to palpable advances in European societies.
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Extending Bakhtin’s analysis of the phenomenon of ambivalence, he directs the concept toward a specific view of the interplay between continuity and change at the level of the artistic text. Rather than reflecting an existing condition, the distinction serves the purpose of analysis. Within the terms of my study, however, this vision of poetic change can be seen in the poetry of a generation of poets situated historically between the Constitutional Revolution and World War II.
If that purpose necessitates a shifting catalogue of acceptable voices in the tradition, he will not shrink from that.
Mikhail Bakhtin’s dialogical principle and Yuri Lotman’s diachronic principle form the twin theoretical foundations on which I have based much of my argument in the following pages.
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An alliance of despotic monarchs and obscurantist clergy are seen as having a vested interest in preventing the birth of modern poetry.
This in turn gave rise to the particular poetic “language” associated with the Indian School. Juxtaposed to such practices as magic medicine and astromancy, the reference to poetry becomes marked in social terms. Page 16 In The Structure of the Artistic Text Lotman places the specific textual manifestation of growth in ambivalence within the context of the interplay between tradition and innovation: It is, after all, the manner in which individual poets juxtapose old and new elements and structures that communicates an impression of the text as old, new, or both at one and the same time.
Those textual aspectsexpressive devices, meter and the rhyme-scheme, or the system of figures of speechwhich were commonly perceived as poetic because they produced esthetic pleasure had yet to be incorporated into the dynamics of poetic change.
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The principal condition was Iran’s familiarity with European cultures, and the processes consisted of a series of negotiations and contestations within Iran’s literary community. The madmen all belong to what he terms the Clan of the Crooked Vision tayefeh-ye kaj-binan. If you wish God’s prophet to be satisfied with you, act in accordance with his instructions, and do not inflict harm upon your fellow Muslims! As such, morphologically and syntactically, they form two interchangeable units of speech providing contrasting meanings.
Viewing the assembly as a simulacrum of Iranian society adds dimensions to its ultimate meaning which lie beyond my concern here.
The foulmouthed youth continues: The process of literary changethe breakdown of old and established norms, conventions, and systems of esthetic expression; the loss of once powerful and pervasive paradigms; and the emergence of new poetic codes and modes of significationis being reconsidered in light of poststructuralist literary theory.
The oblivious detachment that contemporary criticism attributes to them has its origins in a rhetoric aimed at subverting the poetry of the nineteenth century. Their approach has practically concealed all the other paths that might have been taken to arrive from Qa’ani to Nima. The cause for the stagnation of Persian poetry is revealed by the closed, clublike nature of the assembly.
Includes bibliographical references and index. And this indeed is the proper meaning of the prophetic barran which states: First, he accuses them of slavishly following in their footsteps without questioning the efficacy of their imitation: Coming from an increasingly influential social group, these voices began to state the case against poetry in equivocal, noncompromising terms: In the nineteenth-century Iranian practice of dqrya, strict and unquestioned adherence to such conventions had effectively eliminated all possibilities of relative distinctions.
Badan result of this activity is that little by little verse, prose, and other compositions in the language of every people in Europe becomes devoid of all manner of shortcomings as far as possible and attains to perfection. This binary system of differentiation has distorted our view of the process of poetic change in modern Iran.
Rather, they would want to see what new word [lafz-e tazeh] he would utter. The most detailed example of this occurs in a narrative essay entitled “Sayyahi Guyad ” A Traveler Relates.
Rather, the “sound foundations” on which the poets of Europe have built their poetic structures, and which allow them to enlighten and educate their readers, is what Kermani is groping for. Traditional articulations of modernity in Iranian culture assign this part to Nima konsm his followers.
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So long as the system’s description of itself remains essentially unchallenged, the system continues to consolidate itself, and its basic features remain unchanged. The very fact of bai social substantiveness of language implies the external and prior existence of the world formed in the poet’s consciousness, itself a social entity. In what two decades later E.